InDCs become CNDs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels. In fact, the United States, under President Trump, moved away from that goal years ago. Right now, we are halfway to the Obama-era goal and we are not on track to achieve that. While emissions are unlikely to increase, they will not fall fast enough to avoid the worst effects of climate change. I was elected to represent the citizens of Pittsburgh, not Paris. (Applause) I promised to end or renegotiate any agreement that would not serve America`s interests. Many trade agreements will soon be renegotiated. Very rarely do we have an agreement that works for this country, but they will soon be renegotiated. The trial began on the first day.
But now we`re on it. Since November 2020, 194 states and the European Union have signed the agreement. 188 countries and the EU, which account for about 79% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified the agreement or have joined the agreement, including China and India, the countries with the first and third CO2 emissions among UNFCCC members.    All 197 UNFCCC members have signed or joined. Today, the United States began the process of withdrawing from the Paris Agreement. Under the terms of the agreement, the United States has formally notified the United Nations of its withdrawal. The revocation will take effect one year after notification. “The withdrawal of the United States, if supported by the next government, will inevitably lead some countries to reduce their efforts to implement existing commitments,” Oppenheimer said. Although the agreement was signed in December 2015, the treaty did not enter into force until November 4, 2016, 30 days after ratification by at least 55 countries representing 55% of global emissions. Iran`s reluctance to ratify is largely due to its dependence on oil, made more difficult by the collapse of the nuclear deal between Tehran and other major powers led by Washington in July 2015.
Since then, Turkey has argued that it is a developing country and that it has gained special circumstances that allow it to opt out of funding. But it still cannot access climate money, a condition that President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said must change if Turkey wants to ratify the deal.